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GEM-D2 Process

GEM-R2D2 Process

ALD-MCP R2D2

GEM-R2TM Tunable Very High Resistance Layer


Microchannel plates (MCPs) are manufactured using a lead-glass-based, fiber optic manufacturing technology which is fundamentally unchanged from the early 1970s. The electrical activation of the MCP relies upon a high temperature hydrogen reduction that simultaneously forms both the conductive and secondary electron (SE) emissive layers. The lead-based glass system as presently used lacks the capability to independently optimize mechanical, resistive and emissive properties and also suffers from poor glass composition control that results in ion induced damage and lifetime degradation.


A tunable, high resistance film is a critical in charged particle detection.


The patented ARRADIANCE™ GEM-R2 process generates a revolutionary thru-pore engineered film of tunable conductivity, completely eliminating the need for lead glass and associated processing for microchannel plates (MCP) and other electron amplification devices such as channel electron multipliers (CEMs).


The GEM-R2 films have targeted electrical, mechanical and optical performance. Film electrical conductivity over 10 orders of magnitude, with selectable conduction mechanisms (metallic (ohmic), semiconducting and quantum mechanical) have been developed. Targeted performance in areas such as temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), insensitivity of resistance to applied external electric field, stability of resistance with applied bias, optical transparency, and barrier properties has been achieved with GEM-R2 thin films and processes.